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NCERT Exemplar Class 8 Science Chapter 1 Crop Manufacturing and Administration – Be taught CBSE

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NCERT Exemplar Class 8 Science Chapter 1 Crop Manufacturing and Administration are a part of NCERT Exemplar Class 8 Science. Right here we now have given NCERT Exemplar Class 8 Science Chapter 1 Crop Manufacturing and Administration.

NCERT Exemplar Class 8 Science Chapter 1 Crop Manufacturing and Administration

A number of Selection Questions Query . 1 Which one of many following circumstances is just not important to develop maize? (a) Excessive temperature (b) Humidity (c) Low temperature (d) Rainfall Reply. (c) Maize is a kharif crop, which requires excessive temperature, rainfall and humidity to develop, whereas rabi crops require low temperature for his or her progress,

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Query. 2 Propagation of ginger is mostly carried out utilizing (a) seed (b) stem (rhizome) (c) root (d) leaf Reply. (b) The ginger is a modified underground stem, which is propagated vegetatively by stem (rhizome) cultivation. It doesn’t propagate by roots, leaves or seeds.

Query. 3 Which of the next statements is just not true for natural manure? (a) It enhances water holding capability of soil (b) It has a stability of all plant vitamins (c) It supplies humus to soil (d) It improves texture of soil Reply. (b) Natural manures are obtained from decomposition of plant and animal wastes which might be wealthy in vitamins and humus. However all vitamins won’t be current in a proportionate quantity in it, thus won’t clear up : the issue if soil is especially poor in a number of particular nutrient.

Query. 4 The time period used for the method of separation of grains from chaff is (a) sieving (b) winnowing (c) threshing (d) hand choosing Ans. (c) The method of separating the edible a part of the harvested grains (crop) by loosening and eradicating the scaly, inedible chaff surrounding the grain. The method utilises a machine known as ‘mix’ which is a mix of harvester and a thresher.

Query. 5 Learn the statements given under.

  1. Seeds require moisture for germination.
  2. Vegetation can take up vitamins principally in dissolved kind.
  3. Irrigation protects crops from each frost and scorching air currents.
  4. Irrigation improves soil texture.

Select mixture of statements which point out have to irrigate crops. (a) (1) and (2) (b) (1), (2) and (3) (c) (1), (2), (3) and(4)-,(d) (1) and (3)

Reply. (a) The mixture of statements (1) and (2) point out want for irrigation. Irrigation is the provision of water to crops at common intervals as water or moisture is critical for seed germination, progress and different physiological processes. Furthermore, the vegetation readily take up vitamins in dissolved kind together with water by means of root hairs of roots. It doesn’t defend crops from frost and scorching air currents and manure not irrigation improves soil texture.

Query. 6 Which of the next instruments would a farmer use to take away weeds from the sector? (a) Hoe (b) Plough (c) Axe (d) Cultivator Reply. (a) Hoe is an easy device used for eradicating weeds from the sector and loosening of soil, it really works like a blade, pulled by the animals Within the subject. Plough is used for tilling of soil, axe is used for chopping timber and cultivator is one other device applied for ploughing,

Query. 7 Which of the next is just not true for fertilisers? (a) They enhance the yield (b) Their extreme use disturbs the stability of vitamins in soil (c) They’re typically utilized in small amount (d) They’re atmosphere pleasant Reply. (d) Fertilisers usually are not atmosphere pleasant as they’re chemical substances wealthy particularly nutrient, Although, they enhance the crop yield, the repeated and extreme use of fertilisers in the identical subject reduces the soil fertility, It additionally pollutes water our bodies as they get dissolved and washed away by rain and likewise seeps within the water desk posing threats to people.

Query. 8 Given under are statements in regards to the dangerous results of weeds on crop vegetation.

  1. They intrude in harvesting.
  2. They assist crop vegetation to develop healthily.
  3. They compete with crop vegetation for water, vitamins, house and lightweight.
  4. They have an effect on the plant progress.

(a) (1), (3) and (4) (b) Solely (3) (c) (3) and (4) (d) (1), (2), (3) and (4)

Reply. (a) Statements (1), (3) and (4) are appropriately suggesting the dangerous results of weeds. Weeds are the undesirable vegetation that develop alongside the primary crops. Elimination of weeds is critical as a result of they intrude and have an effect on the foremost crop’s progress, by competing for mild, water, vitamins and house.In addition they intrude throughout harvesting process. Weeds don’t assist in wholesome progress of crop vegetation.

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Query. 9 The method of loosening and turning of soil is known as (a) irrigation and manuring (b) digging and winnowing (c) tilling and ploughing (d) harvesting and storage Reply. (c) The method of loosening and turning of soil is known as tilling and ploughing . It is step one in preparation of soil for cultivation of crop. Ploughing is finished utilizing a plough, fabricated from wooden or iron.

Query. 10 The monsoon season in our nation is throughout the months (a) April-December (b) June-September (c) November-March (d) January-Could Reply. (b) The monsoon season in India is throughout the months June to September, The crops grown on this season are known as kharif crop, e.g. paddy, maize, cotton, and so forth. The kharif crops sown in June are harvested in the direction of the tip of wet season (October-November).

Query. 11 The system of irrigation the place water is equipped drop by drop close to the roots of vegetation, is known as (a) pulley system (b) drip system (c) sprinkler system (d) lever system Reply. (b) Drip system is the strategy of irrigation which conserves water and avoids wastage as water is made to fall drop by drop on the place of roots. It’s best approach for watering fruit vegetation, timber and gardens. Sprinkler system can be a contemporary technique of irrigation that effectively makes use of water within the type of sprinklers. It’s helpful for uneven lands, whereas pulley and lever system are conventional strategies of irrigation the place plenty of water is wasted.

Very Brief Reply Kind Questions Query.12 Select the odd one from the next phrases given within the field and give explanation for it. Plough, Seed drill, Hoe, Chain pump. Sickle Reply. Seed drill is the odd one within the above given set of instruments as it’s a trendy agricultural device used to sow seeds at uniform distances and to correctly cowl them with soil. Remainder of the instruments, i.e. plough (used for tilling), hoe (for removing of weeds and loosening of soil), chain pump (irrigation technique) and sickle (device for eradicating weeds) are all conventional implements utilized in agriculture.

Query. 13 In case you are given a dry piece of land for cultivation, what is going to you do earlier than sowing the seeds? Reply. If the sector is dry for cultivation of crops, the soil preparation is finished accordingly earlier than sowing of crops. Preparation of dry soil contains sufficient watering to revive the moisture content material after which tilled and ploughed to permit progress of microbes and aeration, Lastly, the soil is turned and its crumbs are levelled and manures are combined. The soil is prepared for sowing of crops within the subject.

Query. 14 State whether or not the next statements are True/False

  1. Utilizing good high quality seed is the one criterion to get excessive yield.
  2. Rising totally different crops in numerous seasons in the identical subject will deplete the soil of vitamins.
  3. Ail crop vegetation are sown as seeds within the subject.
  4. Cells of root nodules of leguminous vegetation repair nitrogen.
  5. Freshly harvested grains have to be dried earlier than shoring.

Reply.

  1. False, aside from good high quality seeds, utilizing applicable agricultural practices are necessary for getting increased yield.
  2. False, it truly enriches the soil. Completely different crops utilises totally different vitamins which allows the replenishment of used vitamins. This technique can be known as as crop rotation.
  3. False, some crop vegetation want transplantation.
  4. False, Rhizobium (micro organism) current within the cells of root nodules of leguminous vegetation repair nitrogen.
  5. True, the freshly harvested grains have to be dried. The moisture content material in them can spoil the grains or microbial an infection could happen. Drying reduces’ the moisture content material in grains, thus stopping the assault of various organisms.

Query. 15 Throughout which months do farmers develop mustard in India? Reply. Farmers develop mustard throughout the months from October-March. Mustard is a rabi crop that’s sown in starting of winters (October-November) as they want low temperature and harvested on the finish of winter (April-Could).

Query. 16 Which exercise of the farmer can promote progress of earthworms and microbes within the subject? Reply. Ploughing of the soil throughout soil preparation creates areas within the soil thus, resulting in aeration and the soil additionally loosens which promotes the expansion and survival of earthworms and microbes and launch of vitamins within the soil

Brief Reply Kind Questions Query. 17 Beera needs to observe crop rotation in his subject. Recommend a rabi crop and a kharif crop which can replenish his subject with nitrogen. Which crop replenishes nitrogen and why? Reply. Rabi crops are wheat, pea, mustard whereas kharif crops are maize, paddy (rice) or soyabean, These are grown in numerous seasons and due to this fact, can very properly be rotated alternatively. Pea and soyabean are leguminous vegetation which harbour micro organism, i.e, Rhizobium of their nodules, thus assist in fixing nitrogen. These nitrogen fixing vegetation can replenish nitrogen within the subject and therefore, Beera can simply observe crop rotation.

Query.18 Match the agricultural implements given in column A with their use given in column B. NCERT Exemplar Class 8 Science Chapter 1 Crop Production and Management img-1 Reply. The proper matching is as given : (a) —(iii), (b)—(i), (c)—(ii), (d)—(iv) (a) Harvesting is the method of chopping matured crops from near the bottom. It’s carried out manually utilizing a sickle. (b) Ploughing is the method of loosening and turning of soil. It’s carried out with hoe, fabricated from wooden or iron. (c) Sowing is the method of including seeds of the crop to be grown in subject utilizing the seed drill. (d) Irrigation is the method of watering the fields which favours the germination and progress of seeds, A sprinkler is one technique used to water the sector.

Query. 19 What are natural meals? Reply. The crops which might be cultivated utilizing natural substances like manures, and so forth and prohibit using dangerous chemical substances like fertilisers, pesticides, weedicides, and so forth., are known as natural meals.

Query.20 Crossword Puzzle From the phrase puzzle given as determine. Discover not less than eight phrases that are ‘farmer’s pals’. Classify them into residing and non-living. NCERT Exemplar Class 8 Science Chapter 1 Crop Production and Management img-2 Reply. From the given puzzle, the farmer’s pals are: Dwelling Seed, Earthworm, Rhizobium, Microbes, Ox. Dwelling parts like seeds, microbes earthworm, and so forth., helps in progress of crops, enrichment of soil vitamins, and so forth,, microbes like Rhizobium repair the nitrogen in soil, earthworms loosens the soil. Non-living Plough, Urea, NPK, Manure, Hoe. Non-living parts assist the residing parts and assist in higher yield of crops. Plough and the hoe are devices utilized in ploughing and harvesting. Manure and urea are used for enrichment of soil in vitamins. NCERT Exemplar Class 8 Science Chapter 1 Crop Production and Management img-3

Query. 21 (a) Identify the device used with a tractor for sowing seeds in a subject. (b) What are the benefits of utilizing this device? Reply. (a) The device used with a tractor for sowing seeds in a subject at uniform distances is seed drill. Earlier than the introduction of seed drill, the method was handbook. (b) The benefits of seed drill are:

  1. Seeds are sown at a uniform distance and depth to keep away from over crowding.
  2. After sowing, seeds are lined by soil which forestall them from being eaten by birds.
  3. It saves time and labour.
  4. Improves the ratio of crop yield by as a lot as 9 occasions.

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Query. 22 (a) Identify the observe adopted for big scale rearing of livestock. (b) What amenities are offered to livestock? Reply. (a) The science of rearing, caring, breeding and enchancment of domesticated animals is called animal husbandry. It’s the observe of breeding and elevating livestock like cows, buffaloes, pigs, horses and sheep, and so forth. This observe requires excellent care and administration of livestock. (b) The animals or livestock in animal husbandry observe must be supplied with:

  1. Applicable shelter amenities
  2. Meals and water
  3. Good hygienic practices
  4. Medical amenities, and so forth.

Query. 23 Classify the next crops into kharif and rabi crops and write within the tabular column given under: Maize, paddy, mustard, pea, gram, wheat, groundnut, cotton Reply.The crops that are sown within the wet season, i.e. from June to September are categorised as kharif crops. The crops sown within the winter season, i.e typically from October to March are known as as Rabi crops. From the above given crop listing, the kharif and rabi crops could be grouped as NCERT Exemplar Class 8 Science Chapter 1 Crop Production and Management img-5

Lengthy Reply Kind Questions Query. 24 Regardless of beneficial weather conditions, a farmer’s crop failed to present good yield. Give the potential causes for this. Reply. If regardless of beneficial weather conditions, farmer’s crop failed to present good yield, the chances could also be

  1. collection of crops was not carried out appropriately.
  2. he didn’t use good high quality and wholesome seeds.
  3. his subject was not properly irrigated.
  4. manures/fertilisers weren’t well timed and correctly utilized.
  5. weeds weren’t eliminated.
  6. seeds weren’t sown at applicable distance.
  7. the soil was not ploughed and levelled correctly.

Query. 25 As part of eco-club exercise, college students had been requested to boost a kitchen backyard within the college premises. They had been supplied with some supplies given within the field. Listing the opposite supplies you’ll require. How will you intend the backyard? Write the steps. Khurpi, water-can, spade, shovel Reply. Moreover the given instruments, the opposite gadgets required for elevating a backyard are seeds and seedling of greens, vegetation from nursery, kitchen waste, manure, water, soil. Steps for elevating the backyard:

  1. Kitchen waste might be collected and composted in a pit.
  2. A patch of land might be recognized for the backyard, with sufficient daylight obtainable.
  3. Soil might be dug up and levelled with the assistance of a spade.
  4. Sowing of seeds/ transplanting of seedlings might be carried out. Seeds must be uniformly positioned with sufficient spacing,
  5. Choose seeds/seedlings as per the season. Water the vegetation frequently with a water-can.
  6. Compost might be utilized.
  7. Weeds might be eliminated periodically with the assistance of khurpi.

Query. 26 Paddy is a serious cereal crop in our nation. (a) Wherein season is paddy cultivated? (b) Focus on the strategy of sowing. (c) What measures have to be taken to forestall spoilage and bug assault of harvested grains? Reply. (a) Paddy is cultivated in wet season as it’s a kharif crop. (b) For sowing paddy, seeds are first grown in a nursery and later after deciding on wholesome seed plant lets, they’re transplanted within the subject. This enables us to pick out seedling which may survive in harsher environmental circumstances for cultivation. (c) Measures taken to forestall spoilage or injury of harvested crops from insect assault are:

  1. Exposing them in daylight for drying as freshly harvested crops have moisture.
  2. Dried neem leaves are added to saved grains, in order to forestall injury from pests.
  3. Particular chemical remedies are additionally obtainable for stopping crops from pest infestations.
  4. Fumigation of the storage space to take away its bugs.

Query. 27 Unscramble the phrases associated to crop manufacturing and its administration and write within the packing containers given beneath them. Now, utilizing the circled letters, kind one phrase which is an exercise carried out in fields, after maturation of crops. Reply.

  1. SILOS Used for storing of harvested grains.
  2. THRESHING The method of harvested grains being separated from the chaff.
  3. IRRIGATION The method of supplying water to a crop subject at totally different intervals is known as irrigation.
  4. RIVER The supply of water.

The letters in circles are I S HR GATVE Which kinds HARVESTING. Harvesting is the exercise carried out in fields after the maturation of crops, i.e. the chopping of matured crop from near the bottom.

Query. 28 Given under is a dialog between two farmers Heera and Beera. Heera Brother Beera, your maize crops look stunning. They’ve grown fairly quick. Beera Sure, I’ve sprayed urea this time. What about you? Heera Nicely, I’m nonetheless counting on good previous cow dung. I’m saving cash for purchasing a tractor. Beera That’s good. Tractor saves a Lot of time and labour. Heera Sure, it’s been very labour intensive for me and now these weeds have come up. Beera Attempt weedicides, they’re very efficient. Now, reply the next questions.

  1. Listing the practices which aren’t atmosphere pleasant and why?
  2. What’s the benefit of contemporary agricultural implements over conventional ones?
  3. Identify one weedicide and the precaution, farmers should take throughout its software.

Reply.

  1. The practices utilized in subject which aren’t atmosphere pleasant are use of fertilisers, pesticides, weedicides and different chemical substances that pose well being hazards. Tractor although saves labour and time however contributes to air air pollution.
  2. Trendy agricultural implements save each time and labour as in comparison with conventional equipments. They import extra effectivity and accuracy in numerous agricultural procedures like sowing of seed.
  3. The instance of weedicide is 2,4-D. The precaution taken by farmers, whereas spraying it on crops is they need to correctly cowl their nostril and mouth, in order to keep away from inhaling of those chemical substances. Extreme use is dangerous, therefore they need to restrict the applying of such chemical substances.

Query. 29 For dialogue Regardless of being one of many rising economies, our nation nonetheless has a big part of inhabitants going hungry and malnourished. Do you suppose an environment friendly crop manufacturing mechanism is the one resolution to this? Focus on within the class what else must be carried out to root out starvation and malnutrition from our nation. Reply. India, a rising financial system with agriculture is a most important contributor in its progress. Agriculture is science of cultivating vegetation, animals and different life kinds for meals and different sources, Regardless of massive manufacturing of crops by agricultural practices, individuals nonetheless go hungry and malnourished. This occurs due to inefficient crop manufacturing and administration. In India, a rise in manufacturing of meals grains has been noticed from 1960 to 2004. With environment friendly administration, the crop manufacturing could be enhanced and improved to feed the nation’s poor. A couple of steps on this path could be:

  1. Collection of excessive subject seeds for planting The seeds with elevated yield and diminished progress interval.
  2. Administration of crop manufacturing The monetary elements of agriculture must be made extra approachable to farmers in any respect ranges.
  3. Info relating to Use of chemical substances, manures, cropping patterns, nutrient high quality and irrigation amenities must be mentioned and propagated amongst farmers.
  4. Safety of crops The agricultural produce must be shared effectively to cut back the microbial, pest or different organisms from infesting the produce.Pest and weed management measers must be adopted.

A considerable amount of crops get spoiled throughout storage by totally different residing and non-living components. Dwelling components embody rodents, microbes and bugs. Non-living components are moisture, temperature and hygiene of storage place. Conserving these components in thoughts, we will scale back the financial losses, enhance the marketability and feed the nation’s poor.

Query. 30 Phrases associated to agricultural practices are given under. Rearrange them within the right sequence, harvesting, sowing, manuring, tilling and ploughing, irrigation, weeding. Reply. The proper sequence within the collection of agricultural practices is: Tilling and ploughing ——-> Sowing ——> Manuring ——-> Irrigation ———> Weeding —-> Havesting

  1. Tilling and ploughing It’s the turning and loosening of soil to encourage progress of earthworms and microbes. It is step one in preparation of soil.
  2. Sowing After soil preparation, good and wholesome seeds are chosen and sowed to appreciable depths in soil by both conventional or trendy strategies.
  3. Manuring It’s carried out so as to add humus, enhance texture of soil in addition to to replenish vitamins in soil.
  4. Irrigation Crop fields are watered at common intervals to supply moisture for progress and germination of seeds.
  5. Weeding Weeding is removing of weeds that develop naturally between crops and compete with them for daylight, house, water and vitamins. They need to be eliminated earlier than weeds mature, i.e. produce flowers and seeds,
  6. Harvesting It’s the technique of chopping and gathering mature crops. It may be carried out manually by sickle or by harvester machine.

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