Pet

Hair loss in guinea pigs

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guinea fowl pigs ( Cavia porcellus ) are mammals belonging to the suborder Hystricomorph, 1 of the two chief suborders of rodents. This species is native to South America and was domesticated 1000’s of years in the past as a supply of kernel. presently guinea pigs are raised mainly as pets or testing floor animals. dermatologic circumstances are essentially the most usually diagnose pathologies in wop pigs ( 1, 2 ), with alopecia being essentially the most prevailing medical dermatologic signal, adopted by pruritus, scale, and crusted lesions ( 3 ). Alopecia is outlined because the absence of hair in an space the place it’s usually current. This medical signal may be strictly aesthetic, or it could be a expression of a illness with authoritative well being penalties. As alopecia is of multifactorial etiology, it’s important to acquire an correct prognosis in guinea pigs with this medical signal. Remedy based mostly on indicators alone may result in failure or solely temp enchancment within the affected function, inflicting frustration for each the proprietor and the deal with veterinarian. guinea fowl pigs are docile, which makes their inspection snug. The preliminary method consists of analyzing the animal from its cage to acquire knowledge on the psychological state of matter, locomotion, and respiratory tempo. subsequently, it’s essential to weigh the animal, measure rectal temperature and coronary heart charge, look at mucous membranes, and palpate peripheral lymph nodes ( 4, 7 ). After the overall bodily examination has been accomplished, a cautious examination of the coat needs to be executed to search for extreme hair’s-breadth loss and to find out if ectoparasites are introduce. Alopecia might seem as focal lesions, multifocal lesions, and as massive areas of sum or overtone hair loss. As well as, dermatologic lesions resembling desquamation, erythema, scab, excoriations and their distribution on the pores and skin needs to be evaluated .

Widespread causes of alopecia in guinea pigs ( )

Desk 2

Causes of non-self-induced alopecia Causes of self-induced alopecia
Barbering (brought on by different guinea pigs) Acariasis (Chirodiscoides caviae, Trixacarus caviae, Ornithonyssus bacoti, Demodex caviae, Acarus farris)
Dermatophytosis Dermatophytosis
Barbering (by affected person itself)
Effluvium postpartum Pediculosis (Gliricola porcelli, Gyropus ovalis)
Being pregnant-associated alopecia Cutaneous lymphoma
Hereditary predisposition (Skinny pig) ( )
Hyperadrenocorticism
Hypovitaminosis C
Hyperthyroidism
Ovarian cysts

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Vitamin C deficiency

Guinea pigs, like primates, don’t synthesize vitamin C as a result of they lack the enzyme L-gulonolactone oxidase, which is critical for the biosynthesis of vitamin C from glucose ( 10 ). Guinea farrow inadequate in vitamin C negatively regulate the expression of kind IV collagen and elastin, leading to defects within the integrity of the blood vessels, resulting in bleeding or bruising of the peel. Vitamin C lack can in addition to have an effect on early organs and scale back immune operate ( 10 – 12 ). Guinea pigs want vitamin C of their food plan, with an absolute requirement of 10 mg/kg soundbox weight ( BW ) per day, rising to 30 mg/kg BW per day throughout being pregnant ( 5 ). Hypovitaminosis C needs to be thought-about as a possible elementary consider bacterial, fungal, or parasitic pores and skin ailments. cutaneous medical indicators resembling alopecia ( ), pugnacious hair’s-breadth, undress of the ears, petechia, ecchymosis, and harm could also be current, angstrom nicely as a number of nonspecific indicators, resembling weight unit loss, anorexia, lowered emergence charge, stiff or crawling gait, lameness, bleeding gums, diarrhea, ache ( manifested by tooth grinding or extreme voice ), poor wound therapeutic, or flush finish ( 5, 7, 10 ). The prognosis is made based mostly on the medical historical past together with systemic and dermatologic indicators, diagnostic checks and former healing outcomes. Radiographs are helpful in revealing alterations within the costochondral junctions and let loose of the epiphyses of the lengthy bones. Serum Vitamin C ranges can be utilized to substantiate the prognosis ( 3, 10, 12 ). Remedy consists of correction of medical indicators, food plan, and vitamin C supplementation of fifty mg/kg BW to 100 mg/kg BW every day parenterally till indicators enhance. The identical acid is subsequently administered orally. As soon as the animal has returned to regular, dietary supplementation is sustained ( 5, 10, 12 ).

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Dermatophytosis (ringworm)

Dermatophytes are filamentous keratinophilic fungi, which by and enormous have an effect on the hair, nails, and keratinized layers of the pores and skin. These fungi are a rough explanation for pores and skin illness in guinea pigs ( 13 ). The incidence of this zoonosis has now elevated in guinea farrow house owners ( 14 ). Dermatophyte species belonging to the Trichophyton mentagrophytes complicated are mainly reported ( 7 ). very younger, honest-to-god, or immunosuppressed animals are inclined to an infection ; nevertheless, in wholesome animals, spontaneous resolution is park ( 13 ). Alopecia is essentially the most frequent medical signal of this pathology, adopted by scabs and scale, with a extra prevailing distribution on the pinnacle and entrance ( ). nevertheless, it will probably have an effect on different areas of the physique much less incessantly, together with legs, and flanks of the stomach. Average to extreme itch could also be current or missing. With out pruritus, the animal might not exhibit dermatologic indicators and will stay asymptomatic ( 4, 9, 14 ). Since T. mentagrophytes complicated dermatophytes don’t emit fluorescence underneath ultraviolet gentle, the diagnostic worth of Wooden ’ sulfur lamp is restricted in wop pigs. instantly examination of hairs, fungal cultures, and histopathology ( together with periodic acid Schiff, Grocott ’ s Methenamine Silver staining ), nevertheless, are utilitarian for the diagnostic method path to dermatophytosis on this species ( 2, 5, 7, 13 ). As remedy, topical merchandise containing chlorhexidine, miconazole, enilconazole or systemic pharmacotherapy resembling terbinafine 20 mg/kg BW, PO, q24h, and itraconazole 5 mg/kg BW, PO, q24h are efficient in guinea fowl pigs affected with dermatomycosis ( 5, 7 ) .An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
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Acariasis

Trixacarus caviae is the commonest contact present in wop pigs, being reported mainly in males and juveniles ( 1, 3 ). It’s a sarcoptiform parasite that generates extreme medical indicators and zoonotic doubtless ( 2, 7 ). These mites burrow into the peel, creating cuticular tunnels and eliciting a cell-mediated immune reply that causes itching ( 8 ). medical indicators are a lot extreme itching ( giving the looks of seizures or spastic actions ), generalized alopecia ( ), hyperkeratosis, erythema, and secondary pyoderma ( 2, 3, 8 ). acariasis is mainly recognized in animals from favored shops ( 4 ). prognosis may be made by pores and skin scraping or acetate videotape impressions ( 3 ). Therapies embody : ivermectin 0.4 mg/kg BW, SC, each 10 to 14 5 hundred for 4 remedies ; selamectin 15 mg/kg BW, single topical dose ; or aerosol merchandise resembling fipronil or permethrin ( 7, 8 ) .An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is cvj_01_77f3.jpgOpen in a separate window Chirodiscoides caviae is one other species-specific mite very coarse in wop pigs ( 7 ). bodily liaison and the leaning to assemble within the presence of any potential predator facilitates its transmission, with many circumstances of animals from pet shops being reported ( 15 ). The life cycle of C. caviae is roughly 14 d. As medical indicators, wop pigs confront erythema, approximate hair coat, pruritus, alopecia, scale, and ulcers, though some sufferers might stay asymptomatic for hanker durations of clock time ( 16 ). Chirodiscoides caviae is discovered mainly within the flank and baggage compartment space, and the diagnostic methods which were used are : trichogram, acetate rayon tape impression, brush, and scraping ( 2, 15 ). efficient remedies embody hypodermic ivermectin at a dose of 0.2 to 0.4 mg/kg BW, q7 to 10d for 3 remedies ; topical selamectin at a drug of 12 to fifteen mg/kg BW, q2wk ; and, single topical utility of 0.05 milliliter of moxidectin 1 % and imidacloprid 10 % ( 15 ).

Pediculosis

Gliricola porcelli, essentially the most prevailing worm in guinea pigs, is grayish-yellow in tinge, and measures between 1 and a couple of μm in size. These fowl louse run on bark particles, being discovered mainly on the neck, ears, and ventral stomach. Its life bicycle is about 14 to 21 d. medical indicators of infestation are variable, with pruritus and tough fur being widespread signs. The animal might stay asymptomatic with out that means pruritus. prognosis may be made by direct visible picture of eggs or plant louse utilizing acetate rayon tape and/or flea comb ( 3, 11, 17 ). remedy choices embody hypodermic ivermectin 0.2 to 0.4 mg/kg BW, q10d for 3 remedies ; or, single topical lotion of 0.05 milliliter of moxidectin 1 % and imidacloprid 10 % ( 5, 15, 17 ) .

Ovarian cysts

ovarian cysts are a park discovering in middle-aged to older guinea pigs. Most often, each ovaries are affected, though unilateral circumstances are in addition to seen with the best ovary being extra usually affected ( 18 ). This disorderliness has a reported prevalence of 76 % in feminine guinea fowl pigs aged 1.5 to five y ( 12 ). The commonest medical signal, a lot noticed by house owners, is progressive haircloth personnel casualty within the flank area and stomach, with out itching or irregular look of the pores and skin. Hair passing is presumed to be the results of enhance ranges of estrogen produced by neoplastic ovarian cysts or steroidogenic follicular cysts. As well as, crust of the pores and skin across the nipples, adjustments in conduct ( gathering in teams, aggression, intimate behaviors ) could also be current together with non-specific systemic medical indicators of personnel casualty of urge for food, inanition, or voice when manipulated. Some animals could also be asymptomatic and cysts could also be discovered by the way at post-mortem ( 5, 6, 12 ). Prognosis is predicated on the medical historical past, stomach palpation, imaging methods resembling radiography and sonography. The cysts may be enhancing to 10 curium in measurement and tender on palpation. In some circumstances, they’re related to coincident cystic endometrial hyperplasia, mucometra, metritis, and fibroleiomyoma ( 5 ). surgical remedy is by ovariohysterectomy and is the remedy of alternative. Oophorectomy will not be really helpful as a result of ovarian cysts are related to a number of uterine ailments ( 6 ) .

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